Thursday, March 12, 2020

Bull Sharks Essays

Bull Sharks Essays Bull Sharks Paper Bull Sharks Paper Staniels, L. K. and Facey, D. E. 8. Osmoregu;ation and Excretion. lt;www. cartage. org. lbgt;. Kennedy, J. About. com Guide. April 2010 lt;marinelife. about. comgt;. Marine Life. April 2010 lt;marinelife. about. comgt;. De Alessandro, M.. SHARKS The Perfect Predators. Sunnyside, Aukland Park: Jacana Media (Pty) Ltd, 2008. Marine Bio. April 2010 lt;marinebio. orggt;. Merriam-Websters Medical Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Inc. Dictionary. com. 2007. April 2007 lt;dictionary. reference. comgt;. NOAA FISHERIES FACT SHEET. April 2010 lt;www. nmfs. noaa. govgt;. Pillans, R D. UQ eSpace. 2006. April 2010 lt;espace. library. uq. edu. augt;. Shark Attacks. April 2010 lt;www. bugbog. comgt;. Statistics Versus Myths. April 2010 lt;www. sharkattacks. comgt;. The case of the New Jersey Man-Eater. April 2010 lt;www. elasmo-research. orggt;.

Monday, February 24, 2020

History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 8

History - Essay Example tates, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted." Although this was famous, it was vanquished by the U.S. Senate adjournment. He was also a member of the peace convention. The compromise of 1850 involved Henry Clay. Clay took an active part and presented eight resolutions to the senate. The compromise aroused due to the spread of slavery that emerged out from the Mexican –American war around the territories of United States. Such territories include Texas, California and Mexico. The compromise was balanced between the expectations of these territories. The compromise for these territories differed accordingly; it was U.S paying the debts for Texas, which in turn allowed New Mexico to become a separate territory, California admitted as a state free of slavery. New Mexico determined its territory as â€Å"popular sovereignty† claiming that their state’s population would vote for a slave free notion, and the implementation of the New Fugitive Law of 1850. However, the compromises were not accepted by any political figures of the time such as Jefferson Davis, who felt that the compromise made for California might perturb the authority of Senates in South and North regions of United States. William Henry Seward, a famous representative of the Northern Whigs claimed that the Compromises of the 1850 and the old Fugitive Slave might lose the slaves as fugitives, which in turn would become a supporting. factor for the land claims of the people of Texas. Stephen Douglas was a lawyer and a politician He also qualified himself as a senator for fourteen years and then as a presidential candidate. Douglas’ the arguments concerning slavery with Abraham Lincoln took him to a popular phase. He then became the chairperson of the

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Maps Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Maps - Essay Example Due to the different kinds of representations, maps tend to have different messages and interpretations altogether (University of Southern Maine, p 1). Some of the interpretations give insight to areas with cultural, religious, economic, social and even political bearings. This information is important to any traveller or visitor to the area because it paints a picture that would not be easily expressed with words. This information, though essential to the visitors, is also useful to the natives. It helps them know their surroundings. An analysis to any map should be able to the information portrayed by the map. This paper will deal with the analysis of the American map in 1672 and its symbolism to the nation. Analysis of the map of America in 1672 The map under scrutiny here is the American map of 1672 (University of Southern Maine, p 1). This essay aims to critically analyze the underlying information that the map makers were trying to depict. One of the aspects that easily stands out is the presence of ships is various parts of the map. This brings out two aspects that were present at this time. First, is that, one of the most common modes of transportation were ships. The heavy presence of ships around north and South America suggests that there was a lot of movement to neighboring harbors. This also indicates that there was trade between neighboring countries. The heavy presence of ships all around shows that trade was quite prevalent, and this is also shown by the different kinds of ships around, this is could have been used to show other countries vessels. On some parts of the maps, a group of smoking ships are also depicted. This aim to show that these ships were in battle, or they were protecting the harbors from enemies. The smoke indicated the damage that might have been sustained during battle. The ships surround a half-submerged ship, which seems to indicate a fallen enemy vessel. On the bottom left part of the map, the map makers depict a group of Native Americans doing farming. This is an indication of the economic practices that were carried out during those times. Next to the farming there is a group of natives conversing with some merchant. This shows the time that merchants were moving around exploring new lands and looking for new trade relations. The map depicts the natives negotiating with the chief or leader. This depicts that, in this era, the merchants were trying to expand their relations and maybe create new allies for trading or other economics purposes (University of Southern Maine, p 1). This was mostly because there was so much competition between the Dutch and the Americans because of these new trading grounds. On the bottom left side of the map, the map makers show another group of people that are hunting. This also shows another economic practice that was prevalent in the era. The group of people is seen using spears and arrows to kill their prey. To the left of this is a group of other natives that are s hown as talking to a merchant as well, one is carrying a bow and arrow and another is carrying a spear, they are shown as paying keen attention to the merchant. On the bottom left of the map, new animals are also depicted. They represent animals that had been newly domesticated and were helping people with various tasks. The map makers have used a lot of different texture on the map to show the different terrains that were present. The darker textures depict the higher ground on the map, or the highlands. South of south America is particularly dark, and the map makers went an extra mile to show the hills. Apart from the terrain, the map makers have also shown running water bodies within the land. This is represented by rivers and estuaries,

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Human Genome Project Essay Example for Free

Human Genome Project Essay One of the most challenging questions that have been left unanswered to this date is that regarding human evolution and geography. From the sociological point of view, it has long been known that specific populations can be differentiated from each other based on their religious backgrounds. On the other hand, forensic science employs language in grouping human population. In the field of human genetics, there is currently credible information that facilitates the understanding of how the entire human population evolved through time. The recent completion of the Human Genome Project resulted in the generation of the actual deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence of a human cell, with the hope that every disease could be associated to a particular gene in the sequence. Alongside this discovery, other genetic features have been uncovered in the DNA sequence, including small nucleotide polymorphisms which serve as signatures to specific biological phenomenon. In Olson’s chapter entitled â€Å"God’s people: A genetic history of the Jews,† the evolution of this population was described in terms of selection, environmental factors, adaptation and migration (Olson 107). The chapter supported this description with reports generated from haplotype reconstruction and tracing of Aaron’s Y chromosome. Through DNA sequencing analyses, it is now possible to reconstruct the origins and migrations of specific populations based on the presence or absence of genetic markers in the human genome sequence. The most interesting part of the chapter is that genetic changes in the Samaritan population can be correlated to their historical account, including the time when these individuals were under persecution by the Roman government. This historical event resulted in a significant decrease in their population size. In response to the change in population size, the Samaritans underwent what is genetically termed inbreeding, which is simply the action of consanguinity. Despite common notions that consanguinity results in serious health risks, this population survived through thousands of years. One major observation among the Samaritans is that these individuals physically appear similar and this is mainly due to inbreeding. Interestingly, the expected medical diseases that are commonly brought about by intermarriages did not develop in the next generations and this may be due to the selection against these defective genotypes. Another process that could be associated with this scenario is the bottleneck effect, which selectively retains the beneficial genes to the next generation. Today, it has been estimated that approximately 13 million Jews are living in the Middle East. The contemporary Jews are technically grouped into Ashkenazi or non-Ashkenazi, based on their ancestry through regions around Europe. These individuals are a good population to follow in terms of genetic history, since this population carries a natural history of migration and evolution through time. The non-Ashkenazi Jews are considered as the highly migratory subpopulation, resulting in a diverse culture. On the other hand, the Ashkenazi Jews generally remained in the same region, thus preserving their genetic makeup. This geographical history thus resulted in the identification of specific genetic mutations and diseases that are inherently observed among members of this population. The chapter also attempted to describe the effect of founding mutations, which are initial mutations that have occurred early in time during the migratory and settling era of the population. The subsequent generations of this population resulted in the presence of the same diseases and mutations, the most possible explanation for this is that these formerly de novo mutations have been fixed in the genome sequence of the offspring. It should be understood that genetic mutations occur in germ cells, as well as in somatic cells, and these have the propensity to be passed on to the next generation through the genetic laws of independent assortment and segregation. The analysis of sequences derived from mitochondrial DNA have also revealed that the founder mutations reported among the Jews were transmitted through a matrilineal route (Behar 2062). Using mitochondrial DNA tracking, genetic analysis can generate estimations of the time of fixation of a specific genetic mutation in this population. The continuous geographical changes of the members of this population further exert its impact on the genetic fixation and phenotypic frequencies of these mutations, resulting in the current genetic conditions of this group. The genetic pool of the Jews thus reflects a microenvironment wherein genetic changes, alongside environmental effects and migration could be correlated with each other. There is still great debate with regards to the genetic history of the Jews. As Olson has indeed mentioned in his writing, all human beings are similar in the genetics aspect and being a Jew is simply based on how an individual feels about himself. This maybe true, yet in time there will still be more information that will be gathered from genetic assays on different populations around the world. The current information that has been established is that there are three founding mutations that have been identified in the Jews and each mutation reflects the origin or migratory pattern of each subgroup. However, the exact direction or genetic drift of each migratory pattern still needs to be further investigated. There is a need for a comprehensive genotyping of more individuals of each human population in order to fully understand the historical, as well as geographical account of human evolution and speciation. Each existing population must have been derived from an original group of individuals that existed in time. 2. The article entitled, â€Å"Jewish legacy inscribed on genes† authored by Karen Kaplan describes the account of Gregory Cochran regarding the genes of Jewish individuals (Kaplan 3). One of his claims is that Ashkenazi Jews are more prone to serious medical disorders due to the common mutations that afflict this specific population. One of the highly publicized medical disorders that commonly occur among Ashkenazi Jews is Tay-Sachs disease, a neurological childhood condition that leaves an individual disabled and complications result in difficulty of these individual’s to lead normal lives. Another common genetic disorder affecting Jews is Canavan disease, which involves the deterioration of the brain tissues, resulting in both morbidity and mortality in young Ashkenazi Jewish children. Niemann-Pick disease is another serious medical condition that is often reported among this specific human population and this disease is associated with the significant accumulation of fats in the particular organs such as the brain. Unfortunately, these aforementioned medical disorders result in mortality of an Ashkenazi Jew at a very young age. Another medical disorder that occurs frequently among Ashkenazi Jews is torsion dystonia, which is a movement disorder that involves changes in the tissue consistency of the brain. The accumulation of plaques in the brain results in the involuntary jerking and twisting of parts or even the entire body of the afflicted individual. Cochran claims that these common medical disorders affect Ashkenazi Jews in particular through a specific genetic makeup that still has yet to be uncovered. It is also of interest to know that these common disorders are of neurological origin, which means that the central nervous system of an individual is affected. Thus, these disorders can either affect the brain, the spinal cord, or any of the smaller neural cells that are connected or associated with the nervous system. In order for the public to better understand his claim, Cochran even compared this association to that of sickle cell anemia, which is a severe blood disorder that is commonly observed among African Americans. This genetic blood disorder results in the difficulty to transport oxygen to the rest of the parts of the body, as the red blood cells are distorted in shape, from the normal ovoid shape to that similar to a sickle. Comprehensive scientific research has established that a specific mutation is responsible for the generation of a sickle cell-shaped red blood cell, which in turn is commonly present in individuals of African American descent. Another claim of Gregory Cochran is that despite such serious medical disorders that commonly affect Ashkenazi Jews, a positive observation is also significantly present in this human population. Cochran claimed that Ashkenazi Jews are highly intelligent, as shown by intelligence quotient (IQ) scores of children of this ethnicity. He thus proposed that the predisposition of Ashkenazi Jews to mutations in gene associated with brain conditions also results in a high level of intelligence. Kaplan’s article further supports Cochran’s claim of intelligence and gene mutations with the historical accounts of how Jews lives through the centuries. The activities mainly involved migration, trading and other forms of business, all of which were highly successful. Kaplan supported Cochran’s claim by saying that these business transactions can only survive if the individuals involved were highly intelligent and since most of the activities were led by Ashkenazi Jews, then it is also likely that the intelligence â€Å"phenomenon† may have existed early on. Unfortunately, the claims of Cochran still need to be tested on a large population of Ashkenazi Jews before this can be proven and accepted. As Kaplan accounts in her Los Angeles Times article, the report of Cochran was an outright reject in the first journal that he and his collaborator, Harpending, submitted to. However, another journal that supports theories without substantial experimental evidence, Journal of Biosocial Science, published their claim. The claim of high intelligence among Ashkenazi Jews needs to undergo comprehensive investigation first before it can be fully accepted in the field of science. Similar to the genetic establishment of the neurological diseases that commonly affect Ashkenazi Jews, this claim was further strengthened after several years of scientific research in genetic laboratories. Patients positively diagnosed with the neurological disease were checked with regards to other clinical features. In addition, their DNA was extracted and the specific genes responsible for generating the disease were sequenced. In case a DNA mutation was identified in the genes, these were compared to other patients’ DNA sequences. Any other common features among thousands of patients were correlated and compared, thus resulting in what has now been established as a predisposition of the disease in this human population. It is thus important that the same meticulous type of investigation be conducted with regards to intelligence. However, the search for the answer to this claim may be more difficult because intelligence has been established to be influence by several factors. Scientists and psychologists have earlier established that the multi-factorial origin of intelligence makes any effort in tracing the source of intelligence to be ultimately difficult. Intelligence can not simply be generated through the genes because environmental factors can also affect an individual’s condition, including his mental state. There are a number of twin studies that have been conducted for several decades that employ the procedure of separating each of the twins are bringing each individual up in a different environment. Since the genetic makeup of twins is entirely the same, then any claims on intelligence genes can be validated in such experimental conditions. Unfortunately, twin studies have proven that a child who was brought up in an environment filled with violence and anger tend to be poorly developed in intelligence. On the other hand, the twin sibling who was raised in an environment that was filled with love and support grew up into a very intelligent and mature individual. It is thus difficult to prove Cochran’s claim that Ashkenazi Jews are far more intelligent than other human populations, because there are so many factors to consider before one can claim that a specific entity influences that state of thinking. Another issue that would emanate from such claim is that other cultures and ethnicities would perceive such proposal as a form of discrimination or indifference to other human populations. Claiming or even proving that a certain human population is highly intelligent does not help in the global cooperation between countries. In addition, the establishment of this claim will not save lives, just like the other efforts that employ genetic technologies in screening for specific mutations that would tie a particular phenotype to a particular genetic sequence. Proving the high levels of intelligence among Ashkenazi Jews will only spark anger and outrage from other cultures. It is thus good that Cochran feels that there is no need to prove his claim through the use of experimental evidence. It would also be safe and for the best of the rest of the world to leave Cochran along with his claim and let other people speculate on his unsupported claim. The application of genetic analysis on human population has been regarded as a novel and revolutionary addition to the methods in studying human evolution and speciation. The information that can be generated by this technology can be very sensitive and effective, yet there is still a need to employ human intervention and compassion with regards to which specific questions need to be addressed. Genetic analysis in connection to medical disorders can be very helpful in diagnostics and treatment, as well as for saving lives, but genetic screening other social factors such as intelligence will only spark bias among individuals around the world. Works Cited Behar, D. M., Metspalu, E. , Kivisild, T. , Rosset, S. , Tzur, S. , Hadid, Y. , Yudkovsky, G. , Rosengarten, D. , Pereira, L. , Amorim, A. , Kutuev, I. , Gurwitz, D. , Bonne-Tamir, B. , Villems, R. and Skorecki, K. â€Å"Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora. † PLoS ONE 3 (2008): 2062-2087. Kaplan, K. â€Å"Jewish Legacy Inscribed on Genes? † Los Angeles Times 18 April 2009. Olson, S. Mapping Human History: Genes, Race, and Our Common Origins. San Francisco: Harcourt Publishers, 2003.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Relationship between Fiction and Reality Explored in The Things They Ca

Relationship between Fiction and Reality Explored in The Things They Carried      Ã‚  Ã‚   In many respects, Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried concerns the relationship between fiction and the narrator. In this novel, O'Brien himself is the main character--he is a Vietnam veteran recounting his experiences during the war, as well as a writer who is examining the mechanics behind writing stories. These two aspects of the novel are juxtaposed to produce a work of literature that comments not only upon the war, but also upon the actual art of fiction: the means of storytelling, the purposes behind them, and ultimately the relationship between fiction and reality itself.    Through writing about his experiences in Vietnam, O'Brien's character is able to find a medium in which he can sort through his emotions, since "by telling stories, you objectify your own experience. You separate it from yourself. You pin down certain truths" (158). He does not look upon his stories as therapy--he recounts his stories since they are a part of his past, and who he is now is the direct result of them:   Forty-three years old, and the war occurred half a life-time ago, and yet the remembering makes it now. And sometimes remembering will lead to a story, which makes it forever. Stories are for joining the past to the future. Stories are for those late hours in the night when you can't remember how you got from where you were to where you are. (38)    O'Brien's character makes several comments on storytelling in certain sections of the novel, such as "How to Tell a True War Story." Through making these comments, the narrator is not only justifying the intent of The Things They Carried,but he is also provid... ...ally draws attention to its status as an artifact in order to pose questions about the relationship between fiction and reality." --Patricia Waugh, Metafiction: The Theory and Practice   of Self-Conscious Fiction.New York: Methuen, 1984.    Sources Cited and Consulted: Calloway, Catherine. "'How to Tell a True War Story': Metafiction in The Things They Carried." Studies in Contemporary Fiction 36.4 (1995): 249. Expanded Academic ASAP. Jarraway, David R. "'Excremental Assault'" in Tim O'Brien: Trauma and Recovery in Vietnam War Literature.": Modern Fiction Studies 44.3 (1998): p.695-711. Kaplan, Steven. "The Undying Uncertainty of the Narrator in Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried." Studies in Contemporary Fiction. 35.1 (1993): 43. Expanded Academic ASAP. O'Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York: Broadway Books, 1990.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Personal Strategic Plan Essay

I. Vision Statement: Ten years from now I plan to be in an upwardly mobile business career. II. Value Proposition: I am the hardest working applicant among all other candidates because of my professionalism and motivation. III. SWOT: Strengths: I have been communicating with the public for the last seven years through my job as a bartender. Through this job I have become very comfortable when talking to strangers and making them feel at ease when they talk to me. Weaknesses: Although I communicate well when addressing smaller groups of people I am not as well versed at formal speaking. Most times when giving speeches I tend to start speeding through my topic one because I am nervous and second because I just want to get through it. Opportunities: Technology is changing the process of applying for a job. This trend makes it easier for people to compete for jobs outside of their physical environment, which means more job opportunities. A person living here in the United States can actually work for a business located overseas. Threats: In the same way that technology helps bring more job opportunities it also has its negative affects. It used to be that you would be competing for one job with just a few applicants now with the advancements in technology you are in a way competing with other applicants globally. IV. Goals/ Strategies Goals: I plan to get into an internship program later this summer or next summer. There are many companies that offer internships to college students. There are many benefits when you participate in an internship program. It gives you a look into what exactly happens in the workplace. Along with experience it also gives you your first shot to show a potential employer what skills you can bring to a company. Sometimes if you impress the company you intern for they will offer you a job after you graduate. These things are why participating as an intern is so beneficial. Interning is a great way to get your career started before you even graduate. Strategies: There are many companies that offer internships to USI students. I plan to set up a meeting with Phillip Parker the Director of Career Services and Placement to discuss the different opportunities available. He is always sending business students e-mails about internships that come his way. As of now my busy school and work schedule has not allowed me the necessary free time to participate in an internship. Hopefully he will help me get in touch with the businesses that will be offering internships in the near future. Appendix: One of the major trends that will affect not just me but everyone in some way is technology. When you think about technology you have to think that it is always adapting, and continues to make everything that it ties into more efficient. In the business world it can make things easier from many stand points. Technology is used in communications, marketing, and management. In communication it can help people communicate globally instantaneously. A business person here in the United States can have a video conference call with their partners in China. This makes doing business globally less of a burden. Technology also affects the marketing side of business. There are so many ways to market products through the different venues that technology has created. Facebook is a good example of one of the main social networks that come in to play when you talk about businesses branching out into new marketing campaigns. Using people’s public profiles company can by ad space on Facebook and actually now waste money on advertising outside there demographic. Finally technology has also changed the way businesses can manage and supervise the things that are going on in their business. A business manager in charge of a fast food restaurant can see most of the things that are happening in their business just by logging onto a computer. They can look at the amount of money they are spending in labor and compare that to the amount of the restaurant’s sales. This helps the business world monitor more of the day to day aspects of their business. Although technology is very helpful in the business world it also poses many threats to the business person’s jobs. If you think about the aspects of communication a person could have a job here in the United States and be primarily does his job on a computer for example a web designer. Now let’s say there is a web designer in Japan who can do the same things the designer here in the United States can do but at a fraction of the cost. The employer of the web designer could just start giving work to the designer in Japan. This makes the job market here in the United States global. People are now competing for jobs not only nationally but globally. So this is a definite threat. Technology is also creates a threat when it makes things more efficient. When you think of the restaurant manager from earlier who could look at all of the restaurants he oversees, how long do you thinks his job will be safe. Technology will eventually make it so easy for one person to manage multiple aspects of the business that his job may just become part of another persons’. So technology maybe great for us now, but you also have to worry about technology becoming to efficient and making it hard for the average business person to find or keep their job. Technology can be very helpful to a point, but once it becomes too advanced it then becomes a threat.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

American Imperialism The Japanese Attack At Pearl Harbor...

American imperialism in the 1800s was the primary cause of the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor Hawaii. When Millard Fillmore sent Commodore Matthew Perry to open ports of trade in Japan the clock began ticking as to when Japan and America would go to war against each other. Perry’s show of modern military armaments sent the nation that was controlled by a feudal warlord the Shogun into a state of chaos, and the eventual forced removal of the Shogunate. The subsequent infusion of militarism and modernism in Japan culture led to a need for raw material. America was a premier producer of oil and trade between the two nations was established. Germany and Great Britain supplied Japan with military training and equipment. Japan traded for scrap metals of all types, which they smelted into high-grade steel as they began to create their own modern military. However, America could not supply Japan with all of their needs and wants, therefore Japan embarked on their version of imperiali sm. They attacked China, Manchuria, fought with Russia in the Russo-Japanese war, took control of Korea, and once again attacked China. Soon, they required more raw materials as the West began to take notice of Japans rising status in the Far East. They were an ally during WWI, but soon after the war, they sought more independence, a release from what they considered unequal trade agreements, and more autonomy. Dutch and British concerns over their oil reserves in the East Indies became an issue in theShow MoreRelatedJapans Nationalism and Pearl Harbor776 Words   |  3 Pagesmake its most important decision to attack the U.S. American military leaders had confidence in its defense and capabilities based in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and were too confident against Japan. This played into Japan’s hands and gave the Japanese the perfect opportunity to strike the U.S. where it hurt the most. The Pearl Harbor attack was a brutal beginning of a horrible war between two powerful nations. The Japanese forces took America by surprise and the American Naval fleet suffered a devastatingRead MorePearl Harbor Battle Analysis1761 Words   |  8 PagesPearl Harbor Battle Analysis On a pleasant and beautiful Sunday, December 7, 1984, Japan implemented a surprise attack on the US Naval Base in Pearl Harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii which gave United States a door to enter into World War II. Even though Japan did not follow through with the attack causing the third wave of bombers to break contact from dropping bombs to finish off the rest of the fleet docking in Pearl Harbor, it was a well prepared, and carefully orchestrated attack onRead MorePearl Harbor Essay1748 Words   |  7 PagesThe Attack on Pearl Harbour Focus Question: How did the attack on Pearl Harbour affect WWII? What significant reason did the Japanese choose to start a war with the United States? How did the surprise assault affect the surroundings of Pearl Harbour? 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